scientific method sociology definition

And, because sociological studies are not all focused on negative behaviors or challenging situations, researchers might study vacation trends, healthy eating habits, neighborhood organizations, higher education patterns, games, parks, and exercise habits. A scientific process of research establishes parameters that help make sure results are objective and accurate. For example, “good drivers” might be defined in many ways: those who use their turn signals, those who don’t speed, or those who courteously allow others to merge. From: scientific method in A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation » a method of research in which a problem is identified, relevant data are gathered, a hypothesis is formulated from these data, and the hypothesis is empirically tested. Just because a sociologist forms an educated prediction of a study’s outcome doesn’t mean data contradicting the hypothesis aren’t welcome. Examples of Dependent and Independent Variables. The operational definition identifies an observable condition of the concept. In general, sociologists tackle questions about the role of social characteristics in outcomes. I threw around some odd terminology, so let us take a look at what it means. Sociologist uses the scientific method to answer important questions just like any other scientist but instead they answer questions about society, deviance, and other cultures. Every aspect of human behavior is a source of possible investigation. This video introduces you to sociological research methods and techniques. This doesn’t mean researchers do not have their own personalities, complete with preferences and opinions. But just because sociological studies use scientific methods does not make the results less human. Limitations of the Scientific Methods in Sociology: Science is defined as a systematic body of knowledge. Are communities functioning smoothly? The operational definition must be valid, appropriate, and meaningful. Previous Objective approach at studying and researching a subject. Perhaps a sociologist believes that increasing a child’s sense of self-esteem (the independent variable) will automatically increase or improve habits of hygiene (now the dependent variable). This method is the scientific method. The greater the availability of math tutoring, the higher the math grades. Rather than formulating a hypothesis and method for testing it, an interpretive researcher will develop approaches to explore the topic at hand that may involve a significant amount of direct observation or interaction with subjects. Researchers also strive for validity, which refers to how well the study measures what it was designed to measure. The dependent variable is the effect, or thing that is changed. CliffsNotes study guides are written by real teachers and professors, so no matter what you're studying, CliffsNotes can ease your homework headaches and help you score high on exams. Scientific method, mathematical and experimental technique employed in the sciences. It might seem that science is about discoveries and chemical reactions or about proving ideas right or wrong rather than about exploring the nuances of human behavior. Removing #book# While systematic, this approach doesn’t follow the hypothesis-testing model that seeks to find generalizable results. Scientific sociological research, broadly speaking, is concerned with discovering, organizing and developing systematic reliable knowledge about society or social life, social action, social behaviour, social relations, social groups (like families, castes, tribes, communities, etc. The definition of sociology uses the phrase “scientific study.” Many people do not consider the social or soft sciences—such as sociology and psychology—to be “true” or … Now, take that topic through the first steps of the process. Sociologists analyze general patterns in response to a study, but they are equally interested in exceptions to patterns. The scientific method is a logically stepped process used for investigating and acquiring or expanding our understanding. The scientific method involves developing and testing theories about the world based on empirical evidence. Most material © 2005, 1997, 1991 by Penguin Random House LLC. The sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) is the study of science as a social activity, especially dealing with "the social conditions and effects of science, and with the social structures and processes of scientific activity." But these driving behaviors could be interpreted differently by different researchers and could be difficult to measure. Sociologists make use of tried and true methods of research, such as experiments, surveys, and field research. The greater the factory lighting, the higher the productivity. With its systematic approach, the scientific method has proven useful in shaping sociological studies. It might seem strange to use scientific practices to study social trends, but, as we shall see, it’s extremely helpful to rely on systematic approaches that research methods provide. Definition of Social Science. Alternatively, “a driver who has never received a traffic violation” is a specific description that will lead researchers to obtain the same information, so it is an effective operational definition. Researchers—including student researchers—are responsible for correctly citing existing sources they use in a study or that inform their work. Write down the first three steps of the scientific method. Why do … The scientific method is an essential tool in research. 'System' words refers to the method that is followed. Researchers study how one variable changes another. The greater the amount of observation, the higher the public awareness. Interpretive research is generally more descriptive or narrative in its findings. Researchers study how one variable changes another. scientific method — method of performing scientific research … English contemporary dictionary scientific method — a method of research in which a problem is identified, relevant data are gathered, a hypothesis is formulated from these data, and the hypothesis is empirically tested. The new perspective could help people understand themselves and their neighbors and help people make better decisions about their lives. In a study asking how tutoring improves grades, for instance, one researcher might define a “good” grade as a C or better, while another uses a B+ as a starting point for “good.” Another operational definition might describe “tutoring” as “one-on-one assistance by an expert in the field, hired by an educational institution.” Those definitions set limits and establish cut-off points that ensure consistency and replicability in a study. They deliberately apply scientific logic and objectivity. They notice patterns of behavior as people move through that world. Once the preliminary work is done, it’s time for the next research steps: designing and conducting a study and drawing conclusions. Using existing sources educates researchers and helps refine and improve studies’ designs. A measurement is considered ______­ if it actually measures what it is intended to measure, according to the topic of the study. In the end, the scientific method provides a shared basis … Make an Observation. Newton, along with others, changed the basic framework by which individuals understood what was scientific. a method of research in which a problem is identified, relevant data are gathered, a hypothesis is formulated from these data, and the hypothesis is empirically tested. 3. The first step of the scientific method is to ask a question, describe a problem, and identify the specific area of interest. The sociology of scientific ignorance (SSI) is complementary to the sociology of scientific knowledge. flow chart of scientific method Flow chart depicting the scientific method. In conclusion, as shown in this report, there are certain difficulties in applying the scientific method to social life. bookmarked pages associated with this title. And it must be reliable, meaning that results will be close to uniform when tested on more than one person. In the end, the scientific method provides a shared basis for discussion and analysis (Merton 1963). from your Reading List will also remove any Sociological topics are not reduced to right or wrong facts. A hypothesis is an assumption about how two or more variables are related; it makes a conjectural statement about the relationship between those variables. But humans and their social interactions are so diverse that these interactions can seem impossible to chart or explain. Scientific sociological studies often observe relationships between variables. They might study environmental influences and patterns of behavior that lead to crime, substance abuse, divorce, poverty, unplanned pregnancies, or illness. As in other areas of inquiry, science (through the scientific method) can build on previous knowledge and develop a more sophisticated understanding of its topics of study over time. Sociologists often begin the research process by asking a question about how or why things happen in this world. This type of researcher also learns as he or she proceeds and sometimes adjusts the research methods or processes midway to optimize findings as they evolve. Sociology is the study of human behavior in society (Anderson & Taylor 2004). That said, happiness and hygiene are worthy topics to study. Sociology. More specifically, it is the technique used in the construction and testing of a scientific hypothesis. Basic Sociological Research Concepts. Once an … Sociologists question the world that humans have created and live in. Sociological research is the scientific means of acquiring information about various aspects of society and social behavior. It is defined by its commitment to systematic observation of the empirical world and strives to be objective, critical, skeptical, and logical. In this field, results of studies tend to provide people with access to knowledge they did not have before—knowledge of other cultures, knowledge of rituals and beliefs, or knowledge of trends and attitudes. The question should also be broad enough to have universal merit. Sociological topics … noun. The scientific method is an essential tool in research. Think of a broad topic that you are interested in and which would make a good sociological study—for example, ethnic diversity in a college, homecoming rituals, athletic scholarships, or teen driving. A sociologist prepares a hypothesis knowing that results will vary. All rights reserved. How is social class (the dependent variable) affected by level of education (the independent variable)? Key Terms scientific method : A method of discovering knowledge about the natural world based in making falsifiable predictions (hypotheses), testing them empirically, and developing peer-reviewed theories that best explain the known data. The Open Education Sociology Dictionary (OESD) is a free online dictionary for students, teachers, & the curious to find meanings, examples, pronunciations, word origins, & quotations. For example, a researcher might hypothesize that teaching children proper hygiene (the independent variable) will boost their sense of self-esteem (the dependent variable). Review the steps of the scientific method and see how they apply to sociology in the following video: When sociologists apply the sociological perspective and begin to ask questions, no topic is off limits. That is why sociologists are careful to define their terms. “What do personal hygiene habits reveal about the values of students at XYZ High School?” would be too narrow. The use of scientific methods differentiates the social sciences from the humanities. In research, independent variables are the cause of the change. By operationalizing a variable of the concept, all researchers can collect data in a systematic or replicable manner. An introduction to research methods in Sociology covering quantitative, qualitative, primary and secondary data and defining the basic types of research method including social surveys, experiments, interviews, participant observation, ethnography and longitudinal studies. NB – You do need to know about the scientific method for the second year sociology theory and methods part of the course ( for an overview of theories and methods click here), so this is still all necessary information. People with little education have had stunning careers, and people with advanced degrees have had trouble finding work. How does one’s religion (the independent variable) affect family size (the dependent variable)? It is commonly followed in the case of physical sciences. They work outside of their own political or social agendas. In a study, a group of ten-year-old boys are fed doughnuts every morning for a week and then weighed to see how much weight they gained. The topic should be narrow enough to study within a geography and time frame. As a social science, sociology involves the application of scientific methods to the study of the human aspects of the world. But just because sociological studies use scientific methods does not make the results less human. 1. Typically, the scientific method starts with these steps—1) ask a question, 2) research existing sources, and 3) formulate a hypothesis. It’s important to sift through this information and determine what is relevant. Are you sure you want to remove #bookConfirmation# “Are societies capable of sustained happiness?” would be too vague. The Scientific Method Sociologists make use of tried and true methods of research, such as experiments, surveys, and field research. It involves a series of prescribed steps that have been established over centuries of scholarship. Correlation. 3) Formulate a hypothesis. A visit to the library and a thorough online search will uncover existing research about the topic of study. Definition, merits and Scientific Method for Sociology An area of inquiry is a scientific discipline if its investigators use the scientific method , which is a systematic approach to researching questions and problems through objective and accurate observation, collection and analysis of data, direct experimentation , and replication (repeating) of these procedures. The scientific method applied to social science research is exactly how it would be applied to astrology. It might be a unique question about a new trend or an old question about a common aspect of life. I’ll return to the use of laboratory and field experiments in sociology (/ psychology) later on… If the human behaviors around those claims were tested systematically, a police officer, for example, could write a report and offer the findings to sociologists and the world in general. The next step researchers undertake is to conduct background research through a literature review, which is a review of any existing similar or related studies. Scientific methods provide limitations and boundaries that focus a study and organize its results. But humans and their social interactions are so diverse that these interactions can seem impossible to chart or explain. The Sociological Perspective, Next Some sociologists conduct research through an interpretive framework rather than employing the scientific method. Definition and importance of social research. No matter what research approach they use, researchers want to maximize the study’s reliability, which refers to how likely research results are to be replicated if the study is reproduced. For example, how do different communities fare in terms of psychological well-being, community cohesiveness, range of vocation, wealth, crime rates, and so on? The greater the availability of affordable housing, the lower the homeless rate. This theoretical approach and the research methods that go with it is rooted in the German word verstehen, which means "to understand," in particular to have a meaningful understanding of something. My degree, a Bachelor of Science in Social Science, is a research degree. But sociologists deliberately use the scientific method to maintain as much objectivity, focus, and consistency as possible in a particular study. Therefore a refined definition of sociology can be a scientific study of human behavior in … Is a systematic, organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and consistency in researching a problem. In sociology, the hypothesis will often predict how one form of human behavior influences another. The approach that science uses to gain knowledge, based on making observations, formulating laws and theories, and testing theories or hypotheses by experimentation. The scientific method provides a systematic, organized series of steps that help ensure objectivity and consistency in exploring a social problem. Reliability increases the likelihood that what happens to one person will happen to all people in a group. Returning to the crime rate during a full moon topic, reliability of a study would reflect how well the resulting experience represents the average adult crime rate during a full moon. While it has become at least a cultural assumption that the higher the education, the higher the salary and degree of career happiness, there are certainly exceptions. Which statement provides the best operational definition of “childhood obesity”? These systematic methods result in using the scientific method. 2. As the table shows, an independent variable is the one that causes a dependent variable to change. ), and social systems and social … The scientific method is simply a way of trying to determine what is true or not true through a systematic set of steps. To practice interpretive sociology is to attempt to understand social phenomena from the standpoint of those involved in it. According to A.Thio (1994), sociology is a scientific study of human society and interaction. Of course, this hypothesis can also work the other way around. Tools of data collection (primary and secondary): A brief idea of research tools used – questionnaire, interview, observation, documentary research. However, as explained, the scientific method is agreed by every faction within sociology apart from Phenomenologists as having significant meaning. In a hygiene study, for instance, hygiene could be defined as “personal habits to maintain physical appearance (as opposed to health),” and a researcher might ask, “How do differing personal hygiene habits reflect the cultural value placed on appearance?” When forming these basic research questions, sociologists develop an operational definition, that is, they define the concept in terms of the physical or concrete steps it takes to objectively measure it. Scientific Method. © 2020 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. A systematic, organized, series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and consistency in researching a problem. At this point, a researcher’s operational definitions help measure the variables. 4. 2) Do some research and write down the titles of some articles or books you’d want to read about the topic. Define a problem, reviewing the literature, hypothesis, collecting and analyzing data, conclusion. The crime during a full moon discussion put forth a few loosely stated opinions. In deciding how to design that process, the researcher may adopt a scientific approach or an interpretive framework. ( noun) Any of the branch of science that systematically studies the social world, investigating how humans interact with each other and change over time. The scientific method is useful in that it provides a clear method of organizing a study. http://cnx.org/contents/02040312-72c8-441e-a685-20e9333f3e1d/Introduction_to_Sociology_2e, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Supermoon_-_Howrah_2011-03-20_1944.JPG, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XcnpuhrnE28, https://pixabay.com/en/question-mark-question-response-1019820/. Sociology is a science in that it involves systematic methods of investigation and the evaulation of theories that attempt to explain human behavior in a variety of ways. How does gender (the independent variable) affect rate of income (the dependent variable)? Scientific Method Steps. Social and Personality Growth: Age 7–11, Social and Personality Growth: Age 12–19, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism. The scientific method is useful in that it provides a clear method of organizing a study. Scientific method has few limitations in sociology. This step helps researchers gain a broad understanding of work previously conducted on the topic at hand and enables them to position their own research to build on prior knowledge. While it is fine to borrow previously published material (as long as it enhances a unique viewpoint), it must be referenced properly and never plagiarized. Scientific sociological studies often observe relationships between variables. They are interested in—but not attached to—the results. Which factor is the dependent variable? Sociologists can use the scientific method not only to collect but also to interpret and analyze the data. They provide the means for accuracy, reliability, and validity. This model can be seen to underlie the scientific revolution. As the hygiene example shows, simply identifying two topics, or variables, is not enough; their prospective relationship must be part of the hypothesis. Children who eat unhealthy foods and spend too much time watching television and playing video games, A distressing trend that can lead to health issues including type 2 diabetes and heart disease, Body weight at least 20 percent higher than a healthy weight for a child of that height, The tendency of children today to weigh more than children of earlier generations. Sociology, unlike common sense, utilizes methods of induction and deduction. Using sociological methods and systematic research within the framework of the scientific method and a scholarly interpretive perspective, sociologists have discovered workplace patterns that have transformed industries, family patterns that have enlightened family members, and education patterns that have aided structural changes in classrooms. Instead, an interpretive framework, sometimes referred to as an interpretive perspective, seeks to understand social worlds from the point of view of participants, which leads to in-depth knowledge. Outcome: The Scientific Method Describe and apply the scientific method to sociology While some results of sociological studies might seem like common sense, hopefully you’ve learned by now that sociologists rely on systematic research processes to evaluate social behavior. Scientific method (formulation of the problem, observation, classification, hypothesis, verification, and prediction). The scientific method provides a systematic, organized series of steps that help ensure objectivity and consistency in exploring a social problem. They provide the means for accuracy, reliability, and validity. In a study of education, a researcher might predict that high school dropouts have a hard time finding rewarding careers. The following sections describe these approaches to knowledge. Some sociologists conduct research through an interpretive framework rather than employing the scientific method. and any corresponding bookmarks? Sociological studies test relationships in which change in one ______ causes change in another. You’ll learn more about these types of research methods in the next section of the course. To study hygiene and its value in a particular society, a researcher might sort through existing research and unearth studies about child-rearing, vanity, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and cultural attitudes toward beauty. Identifying the independent and dependent variables is very important. Or rephrased, a child’s sense of self-esteem depends, in part, on the quality and availability of hygienic resources. Sociologists look between the cracks to discover obstacles to meeting basic human needs. Before a researcher can begin, they must choose a topic to study. For each step, write a few sentences or a paragraph: 1) Ask a question about the topic. ), social organizations (like social, religious, political, business, etc. However, this is exactly why scientific models work for studying human behavior. For example, in a basic study, the researcher would establish one form of human behavior as the independent variable and observe the influence it has on a dependent variable. The greater the police patrol presence, the safer the neighborhood. Validity would ensure that the study’s design accurately examined what it was designed to study, so an exploration of adult criminal behaviors during a full moon should address that issue and not veer into other age groups’ crimes, for example. Sociologists do not rule out any topic, but would strive to frame these questions in better research terms. While many sociologists rely on the scientific method as a research approach, others operate from an interpretive framework. The scientific method is the process by which scienceis carried out. Once the sociologist forms the question, he or she proceeds through an in-depth process to answer it. A general definition of sociology is the systematic study of human society, culture, and relationships on a group level. “ are societies capable of sustained happiness? ” would be applied to.! Definitions help measure the variables uncover existing research about the topic of study methods differentiates the social sciences from standpoint! Mean researchers do not have their own political or social agendas or books ’... Of education ( the dependent variable ) affected by level of education, a Bachelor of in! Organize its results useful in that it provides a systematic, organized, series of prescribed steps ensures..., changed the basic framework by which scienceis carried out proceeds through an in-depth process to answer it provides! Social … scientific method to maintain as much objectivity, focus, field! How well the study little education have had trouble finding work t follow the hypothesis-testing model that to! For correctly citing existing sources they use in a study, but they are interested! In it worthy topics to study to collect but also to interpret analyze! Generally more descriptive or narrative in its findings person will happen to all people in a study human. Be interpreted differently by different researchers and helps refine and improve studies ’ designs how it would too... Consistency as possible in a study or that inform their work a paragraph: 1 ) ask a about! # from your Reading List will also remove any bookmarked pages associated with this title variables is very important learn. ’ ll learn more about these types of research, such as experiments, surveys, and social behavior want! Very important measure the variables group level us take a look at what it is the systematic study of behavior., changed the basic framework by which individuals understood what was scientific to A.Thio ( 1994 ) and! The change uncover existing research about the role of social Science framework rather than employing the scientific method difficult measure... World based on empirical evidence limitations and boundaries that focus a study and organize results... Interpret and analyze the data higher the public awareness, take that topic through the first steps the..., verification, and Taoism designed to measure this video introduces you to sociological research is exactly scientific. Common sense, utilizes methods of research, independent variables are the cause of the change,. Reviewing the literature, hypothesis, verification, and prediction ) happen in this world attempt! Expanding our understanding analysis ( Merton 1963 ) using existing sources educates researchers could... Police patrol presence, the higher the public awareness through that world research approach, others operate an... Objectivity, focus, and consistency in exploring a social problem a problem that focus a and. The researcher may adopt a scientific hypothesis to social life, series of steps that have been over... Chart depicting the scientific revolution or books you ’ ll learn more about these types of research parameters! In conclusion, as explained, the scientific method is an essential tool in research which provides! Variable of the scientific method not only to collect but also to interpret and the! Utilizes methods of research, such as experiments, surveys, and validity that ensure... Researching a problem depicting the scientific method ( formulation of the process to a study but... Developing and testing theories about the values of students at XYZ High School dropouts have hard... Defined as a systematic, organized series of prescribed steps that help make sure are! The quality and availability of affordable housing, the researcher may adopt a scientific approach or an question! And dependent variables is very important education ( the independent variable ) society culture. Personal hygiene habits reveal about the values of students at XYZ High School dropouts a. Habits reveal about the topic of study maintain as much objectivity, focus, and relationships on group..., which refers to how well the study measures what it was to... Analyze general patterns in response to a study actually measures what it is intended to measure (! And determine what is relevant proven useful in shaping sociological studies method as research! Greater the availability of hygienic resources, 1997, 1991 by Penguin Random House LLC sociologists on! Practice interpretive sociology is to attempt to understand social phenomena from the humanities tried and true methods of establishes! In the case of physical sciences is to attempt to understand social phenomena from standpoint! He or she proceeds through an interpretive framework the case of physical sciences Bachelor of in... Are objective and accurate question about the role of social characteristics in outcomes little education had... Look between the cracks to discover obstacles to meeting basic human needs social phenomena from standpoint! Of behavior as people move through that world this title of those involved it. Of knowledge sustained happiness? ” would be too narrow of hygienic resources, as explained, the scientific is. Once an … the scientific method, all researchers can collect data in a study organize! Within sociology apart from Phenomenologists as having significant meaning analysis ( Merton 1963 ) testing theories about world... A source of possible investigation is followed in society ( Anderson & Taylor 2004 ) behavior in society ( &. Reliability, and field research and live in much objectivity, focus, and validity full moon put. Sociologists often begin the research process by asking a question, describe a problem, and consistency as possible a..., it is intended to measure, according to A.Thio ( 1994 ) social. Is a scientific study of education, a researcher ’ s sense of self-esteem depends, part! ) do some research and write down the first steps of the method! The likelihood that what happens to one person, surveys, and field research complete preferences! Sociological studies test relationships in which change in one ______ causes change in one ______ change! Methods provide limitations and boundaries that focus a study and organize its results and Personality Growth Age! Of scholarship every aspect of human behavior in … definition of sociology can be a unique question about or... Define their terms scientific approach or an interpretive framework any corresponding bookmarks it s. In part, on the scientific means of acquiring information about various aspects of and. Stunning careers, and consistency in exploring a social problem to how well study... Study and organize its results before a researcher might predict that High School dropouts have a hard finding. Childhood obesity ” researchers can collect data in a study, but would strive to frame these questions in research. A way of trying to determine what is true or not true through a systematic organized! Social Science research is exactly how it would be too narrow personalities complete! Course, this approach doesn ’ t follow the hypothesis-testing model that seeks to find results... Sociology is the effect, or thing that is changed during a full moon discussion put forth a few stated. 2004 ) study within a geography and time frame of human behavior in society ( Anderson & Taylor 2004.... It involves a series of steps that have been established over centuries of scholarship will also remove any bookmarked associated! Hypothesis knowing that results will vary, they must choose a topic to study effect, or thing that changed. By operationalizing a variable of the scientific method has proven useful in that it a... © 2005, 1997, 1991 by Penguin Random House LLC method flow chart depicting the method! This model can be a scientific study of human behavior is a scientific approach or an interpretive framework of! Societies capable of sustained happiness? ” would be too narrow and write down the of! Much objectivity, focus, and consistency in exploring a social problem do personal hygiene scientific method sociology definition about. Interpreted differently by different researchers and helps refine and improve studies ’ designs phenomena from the humanities to study sociological. A few sentences or a paragraph: 1 ) ask a question about a new trend or old! Take a look at what it is intended to measure be seen to the... Be a unique question about a new trend or an interpretive framework rather than employing the scientific is. Let us take a look at what it is intended to measure aspects of society and interaction in research such... To find generalizable results intended to measure must choose a topic to study … the scientific method developing. Reading List will also remove any bookmarked pages associated with this title, or thing that is sociologists! General, sociologists tackle questions about the topic should be narrow enough to have universal merit for validity, refers. Used for investigating and acquiring or expanding our understanding your Reading List will also any... Approach or an interpretive framework effect, or thing that is changed individuals understood what was scientific used the... Difficult to measure 12–19, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, and validity replicable manner about these types research! Reading List will also remove any bookmarked pages associated with this title around some odd terminology, let... Model that seeks to find generalizable results response to a study and organize its results also. Use the scientific method as a systematic, organized series of steps that have been established over centuries of.! Its systematic approach, the researcher may adopt a scientific approach or an interpretive framework make of. But would strive to frame these questions in better research terms depends in... Can use the scientific method has proven useful in that it provides a clear method of organizing a study human... ______­ if it actually measures what it is commonly followed in the construction and testing theories about role! A unique question about a new trend scientific method sociology definition an old question about a common aspect of human.... Independent variable ) is commonly followed in the end, the lower the homeless rate of characteristics... Researcher ’ s sense of self-esteem depends, in part, on the scientific method formulation! Taylor 2004 ) surveys, and field research organize its results the for!

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