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With protein they are transported by chylomicrons; 32 Monoglyceride. • This enzyme is absent in liver. II. Cholesterol synthesis starts with acetyl-CoA, which is used to synthesize hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA). combination of abovementioned mechanisms + interaction of genetically susceptible background and non genetic effects (nutritional, metabolic, disease states) Like chylomicrons, the main function of VLDL is the Regulation and pathology of lipid metabolism. Chylomicrons are an exogenous pathway of lipid metabolism because they are where dietary fats go directly. Chylomicrons are the largest and most buoyant class of lipoprotein. View in slideshow after downloading for be… • Half-life in blood is about 1 hour • Lipoprotein lipase (LpL) is located at endothelial layer of capillaries of adipose tissue, muscles & heart. Chylomicrons are formed in … VLDL (VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN) VLDL metabolism is similar to that of chylomicrons; however, VLDL is produced and assembled in liver cells. Comprehensive description of various primary dyslipidemias, cholesterol transport and molecular mechanisms involved. Chylomicrons. Chylomicrons pass into the lymphatic system. The specific type formed at this stage, the chylomicrons, are the largest of all lipoproteins, with a molecular mass of up to 10 10 Dalton, a diameter up to 1 µm, and approximately 10 7 molecules of triacylglycerol. After addition of carbohydrate residues in G, they are released from the cell by reverse pinocytosis. PROF. BILETS M.V. Assembly of chylomicrons occurs in the intestinal lining and results in a nascent chylomicron that contains lipids and apolipoproteins. Cholesterol metabolism. Metabolism of chylomicrons • Site of metabolism: • Adipose tissue & skeletal muscle. After secretion, they acquire apo E and apo C from HDL. Metabolism of chylomicrons Apolipoprotein B, synthesized in the RER, is incorporated into lipoproteins in the SER, the main site of synthesis of triacylglycerol. Lipid metabolism – 2. Chylomicrons appear in the blood about 2 hours after a meal and disappear from the blood about 16 hours after a meal (having been taken up by the liver). In plasma lipid metabolism, the LRP is important because it is the backup receptor responsible for the uptake of apoE-enriched remnants of chylomicrons and VLDL. disturbed metabolism of lipoproteins - changes in remodelation of particles abnormal composition: LP-X (liver cirrhosis), small dense LDL - catabolism of lipoproteins III. Micelle Protein Triglyceride Long-chain fatty acids Chylomicron Large lipids such as monoglycerides and long-chain fatty acids combine with bile, forming micelles that are sufficiently water soluble to penetrate the watery solution that bathes the absorptive cells. Cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans facilitate the interaction of apoE-containing remnant lipoproteins with the LRP, which mediates uptake by hepatocytes. 20. tissues. Chylomicrons transport lipids absorbed from the intestine to adipose, cardiac, and skeletal muscle tissue, where their triglyceride components are hydrolyzed by the activity of the lipoprotein lipase, allowing the released free fatty acids to be absorbed by the tissues. The reactions in this initial stage are the same as in ketogenesis (see slide 10.4.1).However, while ketogenesis occurs in the mitochondria, HMG-CoA destined for … The chylomicrons also transport dietary cholesterol; this is discussed in slide 11.4.3. • Apo-CII present in chylomicrons activates LpL. The major protein component is apo B-48 but they also contain apo A-I, apo A-II and apo A-IV. ASSOC. Chylomicrons transport dietary TGs and cholesterol from within enterocytes through lymphatics into the circulation. 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